“An absolute triumph. [The Jerusalem Quartet’s] playing has everything you could possibly wish for.” —BBC Music

Sharon Kam is “a most imaginative and individual artist” —Gramophone

Inon Barnatan is “A player of uncommon sensitivity” —The New Yorker

“[Ori] Kam's playing [was] at once mature and youthfully exuberant. He is an attractive, engaging presence onstage.” —The New York Times

The soul of Brahms is in his chamber music. It’s Brahms at his most personal and most powerful. For the first of three concerts, the Jerusalem Quartet are joined by two friends frequent collaborators, Israeli pianist Inon Barnatan and clarinetist Sharon Kam (sister to the Jerusalems’ violist Ori Kam), who plays Brahms’ intimate and autumnal Clarinet Quintet. This program includes another late masterpiece, the Viola Sonata in E-flat major (originally written for clarinetist Richard Mühlfeld) and Brahms’ first published sting quartet, a piece haunted by the ghosts of Brahms’ predecessors, Beethoven and Schubert.

Jerusalem Quartet
      Alexander Pavlovsky, violin
      Sergei Bresler, violin
      Ori Kam, viola
      Kyril Zlotnikov, cello
Sharon Kam, clarinet
Inon Barnatan, piano

BRAHMS: String Quartet in C minor, Op. 51, No. 1
BRAHMS: Sonata for Viola and Piano in E-flat major, Op. 120, No. 2
BRAHMS: Quintet for Clarinet and Strings in B minor, Op. 115

This concert is approximately 1hour, 45 minutes long, with one intermission.

 

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Brahms Clarinet Quintet Op. 115, 3. Andantino - Presto non assai, ma con sentimento

Explore the Music

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Q&A with Jerusalem violist Ori Kam

What does the music of Brahms mean to you?

Growing up in Israel, Brahms was such a pillar of the repertoire I was exposed to. In Israel his compositions are perceived as the height of Romantic music, played with great pleasure at every turn often bordering on sentimentality. When I moved to the US, I remember being surprised that Brahms was treated as a very intellectual composer. Audiences seemed to hear more of the intricacy and intellect in his use of structure and development of material. Later on, when I lived in Germany I was again surprised to find that Germans treat Brahms as a classical composer - an extension of Beethoven. They tend to play his music more lightly and less sentimentally.

To me, these different hearings of Brahms’ music are the sign of a truly great composer. His music encapsulates all of these traits. It is at once intellectual and emotional, earnest and sentimental, complex and heartbreakingly simple. I believe that this immense breadth is what makes him irresistible to us and, in our experience, to our audiences as well.

How did you create this series, Intimate Brahms?

In constructing the programs for our Brahms project, to begin we wanted to shine a new light on the three quartets. The audience will be able to hear the four instruments melt into a single 16-string instrument. We will follow each quartet with a sonata, allowing the audience to get to know one of the instruments (and players) of the quartet separately (violin, viola and cello). On display will be Brahms’ unique approach and writing for each instrument.

After the break, the Quartet will be joined by a fifth instrument, and the audience will be able to examine the quartet in different combinations. The clarinet transitions between soloist and ensemble, the viola adds a fifth string instrument seamlessly, and finally the piano is a counter-weight to the quartet.

This Brahms series is one of several focuses The Jerusalem Quartet has done on a single composer, such as Mozart and Shostakovich. What do you like about these programmatic concentrations?

Playing a project such as this allows us to get a deeper understanding of a composer’s musical language. As younger musicians we tend to focus on constructing beautiful phrases. Later on we focus on executing the arch of a section, then a movement, finally a piece. As we mature, we look towards placing each of a composer’s notes in the context of his life and other works. For example, I don’t believe Mozart’s music can be understood without knowing his operas.

Brahms is interesting because it’s hard to place any piece on his biographical timeline. He took a painstakingly long time to complete pieces and often revised them decades later. I think that his writing style and approach did not evolve as noticeably as Beethoven’s or Haydn’s did. Perhaps his evolution is more on the emotional content of the music? I think it’s dangerous to treat his later music as more nostalgic or philosophical because it often expresses such naive happiness or youthful exuberance.

Much of Brahms’ chamber music was written for particular people. Has the Jerusalem Quartet done much commissioning?

We try to commission and perform contemporary music as much as we can. Our hurdle is usually the concert presenters we perform for prefer standard repertoire due to the demands of their audiences. Raising funds for commissions is a big undertaking that requires the collaboration of several players. We hope to be able to put more of these collaborations in the future, since we believe that performers play an important voice in the development of contemporary music.

Inon Barnatan will be featured in all three concerts. How did you meet him?

Israel is a very small place, and Inon is around our age, so we “came up” together. It’s so wonderful to see his success, and we were so delighted when he made time to join us for this project. It’s so great when there is a personal connection on top of the musical chemistry.

Your sister, clarinetist Sharon Kam, is another guest artist. Do you come from a particularly musical family? How did you each choose your particular instruments?

My mother is a violist with the Israel Philharmonic. Perhaps that is the source of our love for the alto register. Our parents stressed music as part of a well-rounded education. For a while I think they were somewhat disappointed that we both became professional musicians. Sharon fell in love with the clarinet after playing piano and recorders. I played violin but fell in love with the viola after playing quartets with friends. Music, and chamber music in particular, was a big part of our household.

Does the Jerusalem Quartet have a particular internal management style or structure? How do you decide on such issues as concert repertoire, musical interpretations, etc.?

A quartet operates on consensus. It is not a democracy. While we each take the lead on some things, decisions are made together. We get along very well and for the most part things operate quite smoothly.

You seem to be on the road constantly, touring around the world. How do you stay fresh and musically focused amidst all the stress of travelling?

Travel is the price we pay for the privilege of performing in all of these great halls and in front of such wonderful audiences. Traveling together makes it easier. I often think of how lonely soloists get on the road. Over the years we have learned to manage our calendar so that we can maintain our sanity, health and have the time to lead healthy family lives.

Photo: Manuel Vaca

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BRAHMS: String Quartet in C minor, Op. 51, No. 1

JOHANNES BRAHMS

Born in Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died in Vienna, April 3, 1897
String Quartet in C minor, Op. 51, No. 1
Composed in c. 1865–1873; 29 minutes

In a famous article titled “New Paths,” published in 1853, Robert Schumann lauded the 20-year-old Johannes Brahms, whom he had just met for the first time, as a genius who seemed to have sprung forth “like Minerva fully armed from the head of Jove.” As Brahms auditioned his works for the older composer at the piano, Schumann felt himself being “drawn into ever deeper circles of enchantment.... There were sonatas, rather veiled symphonies—songs, whose poetry one could understand without knowing the words...single pianoforte pieces, partly demoniacal, of the most graceful form—then sonatas for violin and piano—quartets for strings—and every one so different from the rest that each seemed to flow from a separate source.”

We may never know anything about the early string quartets that worked their spell on Schumann, for Brahms destroyed each and every one of them. In fact, by the time he began work on his C-minor Quartet in the mid- to late 1860s, Brahms had by his own count written and discarded no fewer than 20 quartets, none of which apparently measured up to his exacting standards. As in contemplating his first symphony, Brahms was paralyzed by the thought of following in the footsteps of Beethoven and Schubert, especially at a time when the string quartet had fallen out of favor with his fellow “progressive” composers. Friends were constantly asking when his first quartet would be ready, and Brahms became adept at putting them off.

“It took Mozart a lot of trouble to compose six early quartets,” he reminded his publisher, Fritz Simrock, in 1869, “so I will try my hardest to turn out a couple fairly well done. They should not fail you, but if I were a publisher I should not be in such a hurry.” Simrock was the soul of patience; four years later he was still waiting for Brahms to deliver when he received a letter containing further discouraging news: “I give myself the greatest trouble and keep on hoping that something really great and difficult will occur to me, and they turn out mean and paltry!” A few weeks later Brahms finally admitted to himself that he would never be fully satisfied and shipped the two Op. 51 quartets off to Simrock.

Whatever misgivings he may have felt about the works’ quality, ingratiating himself with the public clearly was not uppermost in Brahms’s mind. The Op. 51 quartets are among his most severe and uncompromising chamber works. The urgently rising motif that opens the C-minor Quartet, like a tightly coiled spring, generates a tension that doesn’t unwind until a few bars before the final C-major cadence. (The same motif recurs at the beginning of the fourth movement, illustrating Brahms’s growing concern with large-scale thematic unity.) The two inner movements provide an interlude of bittersweet introspection, but the dark, intense drama of the opening Allegro reemerges in the finale, a sustained burst of energy characterized by restless cross-rhythms and intricate part writing.

Photo: Brahms, age 20

© 2014 Harry Haskell

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BRAHMS: Sonata for Viola and Piano in E-flat major, Op. 120, No. 2

Sonata for Viola and Piano in E-flat major, Op. 120, No. 2
Composed in 1894; 22 minutes

In January 1891 Brahms made an extended visit to Meiningen, where his friend and ardent champion Hans von Bülow led the renowned court orchestra. The 57-year-old composer was gradually withdrawing from public life; the Op. 111 String Quintet in G major, composed in the fall of 1890, was meant to be his swan song. In Meiningen, however, Brahms found himself unexpectedly bowled over by the playing of the orchestra’s principal clarinetist, Richard Mühlfeld. It is to Mühlfeld’s virtuosity—Brahms dubbed him the “nightingale of the orchestra” —that we owe the late flowering of his interest in the clarinet as expressed in the Clarinet Trio, Op. 114, and the Clarinet Quintet, Op. 115, both written in 1891, as well as the two Sonatas for Clarinet (or Viola) and Piano, Op. 120, of 1894.

Brahms had both practical and personal reasons for writing optional viola parts for the Clarinet Sonatas and Trio. For one thing, he and his publisher wanted to capture the widest possible market for the sheet music. (Schumann published a number of his chamber works in alternate instrumental versions for the same reason.) For another, Brahms, like Mozart, had a special affinity for the viola. He used its burnished, caramely timbre to wondrous effect in both his orchestral works and his chamber music, notably the great string quintets and sextets, and the Two Songs for Mezzo-Soprano, Viola and Piano. As Brahms’s last pieces of instrumental chamber music, the two Op. 120 sonatas may be said to represent his final thoughts in a medium to which he had contributed more than his share of masterworks.

The Allegro amabile of the E-flat-major Sonata is both amiable and characteristically warm-blooded, its sweetly yearning first theme contrasting with lyrical effusions of a more muscular variety. The younger Brahms would have developed this material more elaborately and at greater length, but at this stage of his life economy, transparency and directness of expression were paramount. The music is steeped in mellow wistfulness, as if the composer is looking back indulgently over a life filled with love and disappointment. Even the fiery Allegro appassionato, in E-flat minor, is tinged with regret; the impetuous ardor of the outer sections is tempered by the noble resolve of the major-key interlude. In lieu of a conventional finale, Brahms substitutes a genial, richly inventive theme-and-variations movement, marked Andante con moto, that combines passion and reflection in equal measure.

Photo: Hans von Bülow

© 2014 Harry Haskell

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BRAHMS: Quintet for Clarinet and Strings in B minor, Op. 115

Quintet for Clarinet and Strings in B minor, Op. 115
Composed in 1891; 37 minutes

Brahms had more or less decided to throw in the towel in December 1890, when he presented his publisher with the manuscript of his Op. 111 String Quintet. “With this slip, bid farewell to notes of mine,” he wrote in a message that accompanied the score. As it turned out, the composer’s valedictory was premature. A few weeks later, Brahms met the virtuoso clarinetist Richard Mühlfeld in Meiningen, who provided a fresh source of inspiration for his magnificent Quintet for Clarinet and Strings.

Brahms’s Op. 115 has few precedents—of the handful of clarinet quintets he might have known, only those by Mozart and Weber have stood the test of time. (Each of these works was also composed with a specific performer in mind—the clarinetists Anton Stadler and Heinrich Bärmann, respectively.) But Brahms needed no models to convince him that the clarinet had been unjustly neglected. He even went so far as to tell a friend that it was “much more adapted to the piano than string instruments”—a surprising statement from the composer of three great piano trios and an equal number of piano quartets, not to mention the F-minor Piano Quintet. Brahms’s affinity for the clarinet, with its unique ability both to blend and to stand out in the company of keyboard and string instruments, opened a new channel of inspiration. The “autumnal” quality often associated with the music of his twilight years owes much to the instrument’s silky, baritonal timbre, especially the reedy complexity of its low chalumeau register (which Brahms exploited as masterfully as Mozart).

Completed in the late summer of 1891, the Clarinet Quintet received its first public performance in Berlin in early December, with Mühlfeld joining the celebrated Joachim Quartet. Despite its far from sunny disposition, the work scored an immediate success and was soon heard in Vienna, London, Boston, New York and other major cities. The opening Allegro, with its long-breathed melodies and Schubertian alternation of minor and major tonalities, casts a bittersweet aura. In the Adagio, the clarinet’s yearning cantilena, wafted above quietly pulsing strings, frames a series of brilliant cadenza-like flourishes reminiscent of Hungarian folk music. Brahms lightens both the texture and the mood in the third and fourth movements. The former takes the place of the conventional scherzo, while the Con moto is a set of variations showcasing each instrument in turn. It leads, by way of a subtle modulation from duple to triple meter, to a reprise of the rippling theme with which the quintet began.

The violinist Joseph Joachim, Brahms’s long-time friend and artistic confidant, anticipated the verdict of history when he hailed the Clarinet Quintet as “one of the sublimest things he ever wrote.” Clara Schumann echoed the sentiment in her diary: “It is a really marvelous work; the wailing clarinet takes hold of one; it is most moving.” Not long after the premiere, Brahms reportedly attended a performance of the work in Mühlfeld’s home at which Arthur Nikisch, one of his favorite conductors, was present. As the final notes died away, according to one witness, Nikisch fell on his knees before the composer in a gesture of wordless admiration.

Photo: Richard Mühlfeld

© 2014 Harry Haskell

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Artist Bios

The Jerusalem Quartet

The Jerusalem Quartet has garnered international acclaim for its combination of passion and precision. The Quartet (Alexander Pavlovsky, first violin; Sergei Bresler, second violin; Ori Kam, viola; Kyril Zlotnikov, cello) is currently on a US tour, performing quartets by Beethoven, Bartók and Ravel in Buffalo, Indianapolis, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, Morrow (Georgia) and Cincinnati, as well as this Brahms series at 92Y. In November it travels to Europe, and in January it gives two concerts at the Tel Aviv Museum before beginning a second European tour. In February the Quartet then returns to the US for a 16-day, 12-concert cross-country tour, from Baltimore to Phoenix.

In its last New York appearance, the Jerusalem Quartet gave a sold-out presentation of the complete Shostakovich string quartet cycle for the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, which it repeated this past June in Mexico City. The Quartet previously performed this Brahms series last March in Vancouver with Sharon Kam, Hsin-Yun Huang and Inon Barnatan. Among the many distinguished European venues where the Quartet has appeared are the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, the Herkulessaal in Munich, Wigmore Hall in London and the Cité de la Musique in Paris.

The Jerusalem Quartet is a record three-time recipient of BBC Music magazine’s Chamber Music Award, most recently for its 2012 CD of Mozart quartets, and previously for its 2010 Haydn CD and its 2007 Shostakovich CD. The Quartet’s recording of Schubert’s Death and the Maiden and Quartettsatz in C minor was featured as “Editor’s Choice” in the July 2008 edition of Gramophone and was also given an ECHO Classic chamber music award in 2009. This past January the Quartet released a CD of works by Smetana and Janáček; its previous recording was a critically acclaimed disc of Brahms’ String Quartet in A minor, Op. 51, No. 2, and Clarinet Quintet with Ms. Kam. The Quartet records exclusively for Harmonia Mundi.

The Jerusalem Quartet was formed during the 1993/1994 season while its members were students at the Jerusalem Conservatory of Music and Dance, and it made its debut in 1996. From 1999 to 2001, it was part of the new series BBC New Generation Artists, and in 2003 it received the first Borletti-Buitoni Trust Award. Ori Kam joined the group in 2011, upon the departure of founding violist Amihai Grosz. Its website is jerusalem-quartet.com.


Photo by Felix Broede

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Sharon Kam

Clarinetist Sharon Kam is equally at home with the classical repertoire as with contemporary music and jazz. A native of Israel, she made her debut with the Israel Philharmonic and Zubin Mehta at the age of 16, and she was mentored by Isaac Stern. A graduate of the Juilliard School of Music, she won the 1992 ARD International Competition in Munich.

Since then Ms. Kam has performed with many renowned orchestras in the US, Europe and Japan. On the 250th anniversary of Mozart’s birth, Ms. Kam performed the Mozart Clarinet Concerto in the Estates Theatre in Prague, which was broadcast live to 33 countries. A lover of chamber music, Ms. Kam regularly collaborates with such colleagues as Heinrich Schiff, Christian Tetzlaff, Antje Weithaas and Tabea Zimmermann, and she plays recitals in partnership with pianists Lars Vogt and Itamar Golan.

Ms. Kam has twice received the ECHO Prize as Instrumentalist of the Year: for her recording of the Weber clarinet concertos on Teldec; and for a disc of works by Spohr, Weber, Rossini and Mendelssohn for Edel Classics. She premiered and recorded Krzysztof Penderecki’s Clarinet Concerto and Quartet, which had been written for her—Pederecki also conducted the CD—and she recently released Mozart’s clarinet quintet and concerto. Her latest CD is Opera!, featuring transcriptions of arias by Rossini, Verdi, Puccini and others for clarinet and chamber orchestra. Her website is sharonkam.com.

Photo: Maike Helbig

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Inon Barnatan

Pianist Inon Barnatan is the New York Philharmonic’s inaugural Artist-in-Association, a position created to highlight an emerging artist over the course of several consecutive seasons through concerto and chamber music appearances. In addition to this appearance, Mr. Barnatan will make his Philharmonic subscription debut in March 2015, performing Ravel’s Piano Concerto in G major with Music Director Alan Gilbert, and will join Philharmonic musicians for Dvořák’s Piano Quintet, Op. 81, in February 2015.

He will also return to 92Y on December 7 for an afternoon of Czech chamber music with cellist Alisa Weilerstein and musicians from the New York Philharmonic. A native of Tel Aviv, Mr. Barnatan has been a welcome guest at 92Ysince 2009, when he participated with members of the Cleveland Orchestra in a Janáček-Kundera celebration. The following season he joined the Tokyo String Quartet in its three-year cycle of Beethoven’s string quartets with corresponding piano works. In December 2012 he gave a solo recital, performing works drawn from his latest release at the time, Darknesse Visible—Debussy, Adès, Britten and Ravel—followed by Schubert’s Sonata in A major.

Mr. Barnatan opened his 2014/15 season in September with a solo recital in London’s Central Synagogue. Future season highlights include debuts with the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic, Orchestre National de France and Orchestre Symphonique de Quebec, and he returns to the Atlanta, Milwaukee and Ulster symphonies. In recital, Mr. Barnatan debuts at Warsaw’s International Chopin Festival and performs at London’s Wigmore Hall, Chicago’s Harris Theater, and in New York City with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. Next spring he joins Ms. Weilerstein, his frequent recital partner, for a US tour, ending with a concert on Boston’s Celebrity Series.

Winner of the prestigious Avery Fisher Career Grant, Mr. Barnatan is a member of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. He made a critically acclaimed debut at Washington's Kennedy Center in October 2012 and has performed in other such renowned venues as Carnegie Hall, the Louvre, London’s South Bank Centre, Berlin’s Philharmonie and Amsterdam’s Concertgebouw. Mr. Barnatan has appeared with many of the world’s leading orchestras, including the Cleveland and Philadelphia orchestras, Dallas and San Francisco symphonies, Deutsche Symphonie Orchester Berlin, and Orchestre de la Suisse Romande.

Heralded as a Schubertian of the first rank, Mr. Barnatan’s latest CD, released in September 2013 by Avie, features Schubert’s late piano sonatas; he made his recording debut with an all-Schubert disc in 2006 for Bridge Records. Mr. Barnatan’s second release, Darknesse Visible, was named one of the “Best of 2012” by The New York Times. He also teamed up with violinist Liza Ferschtman for a recording of works by Beethoven and Schubert. His website is inonbarnatan.com.

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  • Jerusalem Quartet: Intimate Brahms I

    Date: Thu, Oct 23, 2014, 7:30 pm

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